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Pleadings – are the written statements of the respective claims and the defences of the parties submitted to the court for appropriate judgement.
Kinds of Pleadings 1. Complaint 2. Counterclaim 3. Cross-claim 4. Third, fourth etc.-party complaint 5. Complaint-in-intervention 6. Answer to the pleading 7. Counter-counter claim 8. Counter-cross claim 9. Reply

Pleadings includes all papers filed, excluding evidentiary matters, from the complaint down to the judgement. DOCUMENTS ATTACHED to the pleadings and made a part thereof are considered EVIDENCE and also part of the pleadings.
COMPLAINT – The complaint is the pleading alleging the plaintiff’s cause or causes of action. The names and residences of the plaintiff and defendant must be stated in the complaint.
ANSWER – An answer in a pleading in which a defending party sets forth his defenses.
DEFENSES – May either be Negative or Affirmative (a) A NEGATIVE DEFENSE is the specific denial of the material fact or facts alleged in the pleading of the claimant essential to his cause or causes of action. (b) An AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSE is an allegation of a new matter which, while hypothetically admitting the material allegations in the pleading of the claimant, would nevertheless prevent or bar recovery by him. The affirmative defences include fraud, statute of limitations, release, payment, illegality, statute of frauds, estoppel, former recovery, discharge in bankruptcy, and any other matter by way of confession and avoidance.
COUNTERCLAIM – Any claim which a defending party may have against an opposing party.
COMPULSORY COUNTERCLAIM – Being cognizable by the regular courts of justice, arises out of or connected with the transaction or occurrence constituting the subject matter of the opposing party’s claim and does not require for its adjudication the presence of third parties of whom the court cannot acquire jurisdiction of the counterclaim must be within the jurisdiction of the court both as to the amount and the nature thereof, except that in an original action before the RTC, the counterclaim may be considered compulsory regardless of the amount.
CROSS-CLAIM – Any claim by one party against a co-party arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter either of the original action or of a counterclaim therein. Such cross-claim may include a claim that the party against whom it is asserted is or may be liable to the cross-claimant for all or part of a claim asserted in the action against the cross-claimant.

COUNTER-COUNTERCLAIMS and COUNTER-CROSS-CLAIMS – A counterclaim may be asserted against an original counter-claimant
A cross-claim may also be filed against an original cross-claimant.
REPLY – A pleading, the office or function of which is to deny, or allege facts in denial or avoidance of new matters alleged by way of defense in the answer and thereby join or make issue as to such new matters.
THIRD, (FOURTH,etc.) – party complaint – Is a claim that a defending party may , with leave of court, file against a person not a party to the action called the third(fourth,etc) – party denfendant for contribution, indemnity, subrogation or any other relief, in respect of his opponent’s claim.
ANSWER TO THIRD (FOURTH, etc.) – party complainant.

SECTION 1. Caption.-The caption sets forth the name of the court, the title of the action, and the docket number if assigned.

The title of the action indicates the names of the parties. They shall all be named in the original complaint or petition; but in subsequent pleadings, it shall be sufficient if the name of the first party on each side be stated with an appropriate indication when there are other parties.

Their respective participation in the case shall be indicated. (1a,2a)

SEC. 2. The body.-The body of the pleading sets forth its designation, the allegations of the partys claims or defenses, the relief prayed for, and the date of the pleading. (n)

(a) Paragraphs.-The allegations in the body of a pleading shall be divided into paragraphs so numbered as to be readily identified, each of which shall contain a statement of a single set of circumstances so far as that can be done with convenience. A paragraph may be referred to by its number in all succeeding pleadings. (3a)

(b) Headings-When two or more causes of action are joined, the statement of the first shall be prefaced by the words first cause of action, of the second by second cause of action, and so on for the others.

When one or more paragraphs in the answer are addressed to one of several causes of action in the complaint, they shall be prefaced by the words answer to the first cause of action or answer to the second cause of action and so on; and when one or more paragraphs of the answer are addressed to several causes of action, they shall be prefaced by words to that effect. (4)

(c) Relief.-The pleading shall specify the relief sought, but it may add a general prayer for such further or other relief as may be deemed just or equitable. (3a, R6)

(d) Date.-Every pleading shall be dated. (n)

SEC. 3. Signature and address.-Every pleading must be signed by the party or counsel representing him, stating in either case his address which should not be a post office box.

The signature of counsel constitutes a certificate by him that he has read the pleading; that to the best of his knowledge, information, and belief there is good ground to support it; and that it is not interposed for delay.

An unsigned pleading produces no legal effect. However, the court may, in its discretion, allow such deficiency to be remedied if it shall appear that the same was due to mere inadvertence and not intended for delay. Counsel who deliberately files an unsigned pleading, or signs a pleading in violation of this Rule, or alleges scandalous or indecent matter therein, or fails to promptly report to the court a change of his address, shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary action. (5a)

SEC. 4. Verification.-Except when otherwise specifically required by law or rule, pleadings need not be under oath, verified or accompanied by affidavit.

A pleading is verified by an affidavit that the affiant has read the pleading and that the allegations therein are true and correct of his personal knowledge or based on authentic records.

A pleading required to be verified which contains a verification based on “information and belief,” or upon “knowledge, information and belief,” or lacks a proper verification, shall be treated as an unsigned pleading. (4a)

SEC. 5. Certification against forum shopping. -The plaintiff or principal party shall certify under oath in the complaint or other initiatory pleading asserting a claim for relief, or in a sworn certification annexed thereto and simultaneously filed therewith: (a) that he has not theretofore commenced any action or filed any claim involving the same issues in any court, tribunal or quasi-judicial agency and, to the best of his knowledge, no such other action or claim is pending therein; (b) if there is such other pending action or claim, a complete statement of the present status thereof; and (c) if he should thereafter learn that the same or similar action or claim has been filed or is pending, he shall report that fact within five (5) days therefrom to the court wherein his aforesaid complaint or initiatory pleading has been filed.

Failure to comply with the foregoing requirements shall not be curable by mere amendment of the complaint or other initiatory pleading but shall be cause for the dismissal of the case without prejudice, unless otherwise provided, upon motion and after hearing. The submission, of a false certification or non-compliance with any of the undertakings therein shall constitute indirect contempt of court, without prejudice to the corresponding administrative and criminal actions. If the acts of the party or his counsel clearly constitute willful and deliberate forum shopping, the same shall be ground for summary dismissal with prejudice and shall constitute direct contempt, as well as a cause for administrative sanctions. (n)…...

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