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Ch 4 Sped

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Chapter 4

1. Explain what is meant by a chronic and acute health impairment. * Chronic
Chronic is when the health impairment is long term. Chronic health impairments are defined to last more than a year after the first diagnosis. One example is diabetes. Pg. 83-84

* Acute
Acute is when the health impairment is short term. Acute health impairments are ones that can be helped in a shorter time and not lasting over a life span. Pg. 83

2. Describe the impact of visible versus invisible related to health impairments. * When an impairment is visible there are more precautions and adaptions made. Pg. 84 * The people that interact with the person with a visible health impairment would know and not be surprised when something happens. Pg 84 * Although when health impairments are invisible some people may not be known as really ill and get the treatment and excess aid they need. Pg. 84 * They also may interact in activities that could be dangerous to them. Pg. 84

Asthma 3. Define Asthma and provide 4 facts about it. * Definition * Asthma is the most common pulmonary disease of childhood. Pg. 84 * 4 Facts * Asthma can begin in infancy or develop later in life. Pg. 84 * Asthma is a disease in result of many factors in that genetic predisposition interacts with circumstances in the environment. Pg. 85 * It develops beginning with allergen-induced inflammation followed by a consolidation phase characterized by increased allergen responsiveness and structural changes. Pg. 85 * Asthma occurs as a result of the body’s immune system and is diagnosed through physical examination. Pg. 85

3A. List 4 symptoms of asthma * Wheezing Pg. 85 * Difficulty breathing Pg. 85 * Chest constrictions Pg. 85 * Sweating Pg. 85

4. Explain why it is important to treat asthma promptly. * One reason is because air can become trapped in the alveoli which expands the lungs and makes it hard to inhale. It is also important because repeated asthma attacks can cause permanent lung damage. Pg. 85

5. List 3 preventive treatments for asthma * Detecting the cause Pg. 85 * Remove pets from house Pg. 85 * Expose individual to low doses of the allergen. Pg. 85

6. In the event of an asthma attack, describe two forms of intervention. * One form of intervention is to use medication such as bronchodilators through an inhaler to open up the airways. Pg. 85 * Another is to use a breathing machine like a nebulizer to open up the airways. Pg. 86

7. Describe the impact of asthma on school attendance and how absenteeism may be reduced for children who have asthma. * Many students with asthma may miss many class periods due to tiredness, hospitalization, or discomfort about managing their asthma at school. Pg. 87 * Symptom control and health maintenance are good things to do to help keep school absence to a minimum. Pg. 87 * Using a peak flow monitor helps the student maintain health and stay in class. Pg. 87

8. Describe 4 points about how teachers and other professionals can assist in asthma prevention and facilitate the health and educational achievement of students with asthma. * Teachers and professionals can help with asthma problems by keeping a close eye on classroom environments. Pg. 87 * Classrooms should be cleaned and dust free before the students enter the room. Pg. 87 * Students with asthma might also need to sit from boards avoiding chalk dust and pen fumes. Pg. 87 * Also they must know and practice good intervention techniques. Pg. 87

9. List the 5 components of a medical emergency plan for asthma episodes. * Who remains with the student. Pg. 87 * How assistance is summoned on or off campus. Pg. 87 * Who administers medication and performs other medical responses. Pg. 87 * Specific medical intervention techniques. Pg. 87 * How parents or guardians are informed. Pg. 87

10. Explain how diabetes occurs. * Diabetes occurs when carbs, fats, and proteins can’t be metabolized into glucose correctly because of not enough or no insulin. Insulin is what carrys glucose from the bloodstream to the cells to produce energy. So glucose rises in the blood and is carried out through urine. Pg. 88

11. Describe Type 1 and Type II Diabetes. * Type I * Type one diabetes is when insulin is not produced which is most common in children. Pg. 89 * Type II * Type two diabetes is when insulin is not produced enough to meet the body’s demands, and is most common in adults. Pg. 89

12. Describe the associated medical conditions that occur with diabetes. * Over time people with diabetes can have damage to blood vessels and nerves. This can cause diabetic retinopathy if damage of blood vessels is in the eye. Also damage blood vessels in kidneys can lead to kidney failure. If blood vessels in the heart are damaged the person can have coronary artery disease and eventual heart attack. When nerves are damaged the person can lose sensation and have tingling or numbness in the lower limbs. Pg. 89-90

13. Explain what happens in hyperglycemia and its symptoms, how it is treated? * Hyperglycemia when there is too little insulin in the body and no compliance with diet. Pg. 90 * Symptoms * High glucose levels Pg. 91 * Occur gradually Pg. 91 * Polyuria Pg. 91 * Fatigue or weakness Pg. 91 * Polydipsia Pg. 91 * Polyphagia Pg. 91 * Treated * Give insulin Pg. 91 * Follow plan of action Pg. 91

14. Explain what happens in hypoglycemia, its symptoms and how it is treated. * Hypoglycemia is when there is not enough glucose for the amount of insulin in the body and eating is delayed. Pg. 91 * Symptoms * Low levels of glucose Pg. 91 * Occur quickly Pg. 91 * Hunger Pg. 91 * Headaches Pg. 91 * Seizures Pg. 91 * Tremor Pg. 91 * Dizziness Pg. 91 * Behavior change Pg. 91 * Difficulty speaking Pg. 91 * Confusion Pg. 91 * Treated * Give glucose Pg. 91 * Follow plan of action Pg. 91

15. Describe how type one diabetes is managed in children. * Type one diabetes is managed in children by putting insulin into the body because they have none, monitoring and controlling insulin, having a healthy diet, and exercise. The person with type one also needs to maintain good nutrition that balances glucose with calories. Pg. 91-92

Cystic Fibrosis
16. Define cystic fibrosis and a description with 4 facts. * Definition * Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary and progressive disease that affects the lungs and other major body organs. Pg. 93 * Description * Cystic fibrosis is most common among whites but occurs in other ethnic groups in low numbers. Pg. 93 * It occurs equally in males and females. Pg. 93 * The gene of cystic fibrosis is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Pg. 93 * Only way a person can get cystic fibrosis is if their parent is a carrier which makes the children of cystic fibrosis individuals very likely. Pg. 93

17. Explain what is meant by cystic fibrosis being a systemic condition. * Cystic fibrosis is a systemic condition meaning that it has affect on the body and impacts many organs. Pg. 94

18. Explain what is meant by chest physiotherapy and it’s purpose with cystic fibrosis. * Chest Physiotherapy * Chest physiotherapy is a pulmonary maintenance routine aspect. Pg. 94 * Purpose with cystic fibrosis * It is percussion or vibration techniques to loosen the mucus then special positioning of body to drain secretions. Pg. 94

19. Describe 3 implications for teachers and other school personnel might do to in managing cystic fibrosis. * One good thing to do is to keep digestive enzymes, medications, and oral supplements so the student can take them in privacy but under supervision. Pg. 95 * Also the student should be encourage to cough to loosen up mucus. Pg. 95 * Lastly teachers and school personnel can help by providing academic support if the student must be hospitalized or has to be at home. Pg. 95 * Next teachers can help by setting up calls between the person’s peers and them while they are hospitalized. Pg. 96

Congenital Infections
20. Explain the acronym STORCH. List the associated medical conditions of STORCH. * STORCH * Syphilis- acquired through sexual contact Pg. 96 * Toxoplasmosis- caused by a parasite that infects mammals Pg. 97 * Other- varicella-zoster and parvovirus B19. Pg. 97 * Rubella- once viral cause of birth defects transmitted through respiratory route. Pg. 97 * Cytomegalovirus- common cause of congenital infection Pg. 97 * Herpes- mouth and genital disease acquired by mother from transmission through bloodstream. Pg. 97 * Medical conditions * Anemia Pg. 98 * Brain calcifications Pg. 98 * Bone abnormalities Pg. 98 * Cerebral palsy Pg. 98 * Congenital heart defects Pg. 98 * Ear/ auditory impairment Pg. 98 * Encephalitis Pg. 98 * Eye/ visual impairment Pg. 98 * Hydrocephalus Pg. 98 * Jaundice Pg. 98 * Liver/ spleen enlarged Pg. 98 * Low birth weight Pg. 98 * Low platelet count Pg. 98 * Mental retardation Pg. 98 * Microcephaly Pg. 98 * Pneumonia Pg. 98 * Seizures Pg. 98 * Skin rash Pg. 98

21. Describe the benefits of implementing universal precautions related to infectious diseases. * One benefit is protecting the infected individuals from further infection. Second is protecting the privacy of infected individuals. Next is protecting the health of service providers. Lastly is protecting the health of other students. Pg. 103

22. You have been asked to provide 3 tips on universal precautions related to waste disposal and sanitation of toys and equipment. Explain how to sanitize toys. * Waste Disposal * Dispose of soiled materials. Pg. 105 * Put on gloves then whip up fluid spills with towels. Pg. 105 * After fluid is removed clean area with ten parts water to one part household bleach. Pg. 105 * Sanitation of toys and equipment * First always put on gloves before cleaning equipment or toys. Pg. 105 * Clean all equipment and toys with fresh solution everyday. Pg. 105 * Place toys that have been touched in separate box until they are cleaned. Pg. 105 * Soft toys must be cleaned by spraying commercial cleaning substances on them and place in a sealed bag overnight. Pg. 105…...

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